In 1987 the Montreal Protocol, an International environmental agreement, established requirements that began the worldwide phase out of ozone-depleting CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). In 1992 it was amended to establish a schedule for the phase out of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons). HCFCs are less damaging to the ozone layer than CFCs, but still contain ozone-destroying chlorine. The Montreal Protocol is carried out in the U.S. through Title VI of the Clean Air Act, which is implemented by EPA.
HCFC-22 (also know as R-22) has been the refrigerant of choice for industrial process chillers for more than four decades. Unfortunately for the environment, releases of R-22, such as those from leaks, contribute to ozone depletion. In addition, R-22 is a greenhouse gas and the manufacture of R-22 results in a by-product (HFC-23) that contributes to global warming. As the manufacture of R-22 is phased out over the coming years as part of the agreement to end production of HCFCs, manufacturers of industrial process chiller systems are offering equipment that uses ozone-friendly refrigerants.
As part of the Montreal Protocol, effective January 1, 2010, Advantage and other industrial process chiller manufacturers no longer build equipment using HCFC-22 (R-22) refrigerant. More and more process chilling equipment is being built using HFC-410A (R-410A) since R-22 can no longer be used.
R-410A is highly efficient nearly azeotropic mixture (gases evaporate at nearly the same temperatures) of two gasses ideally suited for replacing R-22 in scroll compressor packages. R-410A will not damage the ozone.
R-410A has a significantly higher vapor pressure than R-22. The condensing pressure of R-410A at standard conditions for water-cooled chillers is about 340 psi and approximately 390 psi for air-cooled chillers. This is slightly higher than high-pressure safety shut-off settings for R-22. This pressure far exceeds the pressure rating of the components previously used on R-22 systems.
Contractors and technicians need to know that R-410A can only be used in equipment designed for R-410A. It cannot be used to retrofit existing R-22 equipment due to significantly higher operating pressures. Furthermore, special service equipment is required, such as a high pressure manifold gauge set, a high-pressure recovery unit, and high pressure recovery tanks.
Advantage Portable Water Chillers Using R-410A
Advantage Central Water Chillers Using R-410A